englishbasicgrammar 

Zurück

   

Basic Grammar English

Inhaltsangabe  Table of Contents

 

1.      

Phonetik (Lautschrift)

Phonetics (Phonetic Script)

2.      

Unregelmäßige Verben

Irregular Verbs

3.      

Die Zeiten

The Tenses

4.      

Signalwörter für Zeiten

Signal Words for Tenses

5.      

Special: Present Perfect

Special: Present Perfect

6.      

Hilfsverben

Auxiliary Verbs

7.      

Verneinungen (to DO)

Negations (to DO)

8.      

Fragen stellen

Asking Questions

9.      

Satztypen

Types of Sentences

10.     

Verlaufsform

Continuous (Progressive) Form

11.     

Special: Future

Special: Future

12.     

Aktiv und Passiv

Active and Passive Voice

13.     

Zeiten: Normal- u. Verlaufs-form (Aktiv und Passiv)

Tenses: Simple & Continuous Form (Active & Passive Voice)

14.     

Übersetzung (mit Checkliste)

Translation (with Checklist)

15.     

Struktur von Sätzen

Structure of Sentences

16.     

Relativsätze

Relative Clauses

17.     

Partizipien

Participles

18.     

Das Gerundium

The Gerund

19.     

Auslassungssätze

Ellipsis

20.     

Fragen zum Text/ Kommentar/

Geleitete Interpretation

Questions on the text/

Comment/ Guided Interpretation

21.     

Special: S

Special: S

22.     

Special: Y

Special: Y

23.     

Artikel

Articles

24.     

Adjektive und Adverbien

Adjectives and Adverbs

25.     

Indirekte Rede

Reported Speech

26.     

Bedingungssätze

(if- Sätze)

Conditional Clauses

(if- clauses)

   

Spezielle Grammatikbücher

Special Grammar Books

 

 

1.Phonetics (Phonetic Script)

 

Hardly any other language is more difficult than English, as far as pronunciation is concerned !

If there’s nobody around to tell you how to pronounce unknown words: learn the signs of the International Phonetic Script Association (API) (there are not too many unknown signs)

reason for extra signs:

there are more sounds in English than there are letters in the alphabet !

 

 

2. Irregular Verbs

 

The main part of grammar is about tenses ! In order to form them you need

the 3 verb forms. Fortunately most verbs are regular

(2nd and 3rd form: -ed);

unfortunately the most important and most often used verbs are irregular !

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Irregular Verbs

Translations

be, was/were, been

sein; werden (Passiv)

bear, bore, borne

ertragen, aushalten

beat, beat, beaten

schlagen

become, became, become

werden (Zustandsänderung, Beruf, etc.)

begin, began, begun

beginnen, anfangen

bend, bent, bent

biegen

bet, bet, bet /betted

wetten

bid, bid, bid

bieten (Versteigerung); bid (farewell): bade/bid, bidden

bind, bound, bound

binden

bite, bit, bitten

beißen

bleed, bled, bled

bluten

blow, blew, blown

blasen; wehen; putzen (Nase)

break, broke, broken

brechen

breed, bred, bred

(aus)brüten; züchten

bring, brought, brought

(her)bringen

build, built, built

bauen

burn, burnt, burnt (burned, esp.US)

(ver)brennen

burst, burst, burst

bersten, platzen

bust, bust, bust (busted)

kaputtmachen

buy, bought, bought

kaufen

cast, cast, cast

werfen

catch, caught, caught

fangen

choose, chose, chosen

(aus)wählen

cling, clung, clung (to)

festhalten (an)

come, came, come

kommen

cost, cost, cost

kosten

creep, crept, crept

kriechen; schleichen

cut, cut, cut

schneiden

deal, dealt, dealt

handeln; deal with: sich beschäftigen mit, handeln von; deal in: handeln mit

dig, dug, dug

graben

dive, dove, dived (irregular only US)

ins Wasser springen; (unter)tauchen

do, did, done

tun; machen

draw, drew, drawn

ziehen; zeichnen

dream, dreamt, dreamt (dreamed, esp. US)

träumen

drink, drank, drunk

trinken

drive, drove, driven

(an)treiben; fahren (selbst, ein Fahrzeug)

dwell, dwelt, dwelt (dwelled)

wohnen

eat, ate, eaten

essen; fressen

fall, fell, fallen

fallen

feed, fed, fed

füttern; s. ernähren

feel, felt, felt

(s.) fühlen

fight, fought, fought

kämpfen

fit, fit, fit (irregular only US)

passen

find, found, found

finden

flee, fled, fled

fliehen, flüchten

fly, flew, flown

fliegen

forbid, forbad(e), forbidden

verbieten

forget, forgot, forgotten

vergessen

freeze, froze, frozen

frieren

get, got, got/ gotten (only US)

bekommen; gelangen; holen; werden

give, gave, given

geben; schenken

go, went, gone

gehen; (mit)fahren

grind, ground, ground

schleifen; mahlen

grow, grew, grown

wachsen; anbauen (Feld, Garten)

hang, hung, hung

(auf)hängen (Strafe: hanged, hanged)

have, had, had

haben; (etw.) essen; trinken

hear, heard, heard

hören (zufällig, automatisch)

hide, hid, hid(den)

verstecken

hit, hit, hit

schlagen; treffen

hold, held, held

halten

hurt, hurt, hurt

verletzen; weh tun

keep, kept, kept

(be)halten (Tiere; Versprechen; Mund)

kneel, knelt, knelt  (kneeled, esp. US)

knien

knit, knit, knit (knitted)

stricken

know, knew, known

wissen; kennen

lay, laid, laid

legen; (lay the table= Tisch decken)

lead, led, led

führen, leiten

lean, leant, leant (leaned, esp. US)

lehnen

leap, leapt, leapt (leaped)

springen

learn, learnt, learnt (learned, esp. US)

lernen; erfahren (gehört, gelesen)

leave, left, left

(ver-, zurück-) lassen; weggehen; abfahren

lend, lent, lent

(ver)leihen

let, let; let

(etwas) (zu)lassen

lie, lay, lain, (lie, lied, lied = lügen !)

liegen

light, lit, lit (lighted)

anzünden; erleuchten

lose, lost, lost

verlieren

make, made, made

machen; herstellen (Made in Germany)

mean, meant, meant

bedeuten; meinen (sagen wollen)

meet, met, met

treffen; kennenlernen

mow, mowed, mown (mowed)

mähen

pay, paid, paid

bezahlen

plead, pled, pled (irregular esp. US)

plädieren

prove, proved, proved/proven (US)

 

put, put, put

setzen; stellen; legen

quit, quit, quit (irregular only US)

aufgeben, aufhören, abhauen

read, read, read

lesen

ride, rode, ridden

reiten; fahren (Zweirad, Auto)

ring, rang, rung

klingeln; anrufen (Telefon)

rise, rose, risen

(an)steigen; sich erheben; aufgehen (Sonne)

run, ran, run

laufen, rennen

saw, sawed, sawn (sawed, US)

sägen

say, said, said

sagen

see, saw, seen

sehen (zufällig, automatisch)

seek, sought, sought

suchen

sell, sold, sold

verkaufen

send, sent, sent

(über-, ver-) senden, (ver-) schicken

set, set, set

(ein)stellen (Wecker)

sew, sewed, sewn (sewed)

nähen

shake, shook, shaken

schütteln

shave, shaved, shaved/ shaven

rasieren

shear, sheared, sheared/ shorn

scheren (Schaf)

shed, shed, shed

vergießen (z. B. Blut)

shine, shone, shone

scheinen; putzen (z. B. Schuhe): 2x shined

shit, shit/shat, shit/shat

scheißen

shoot, shot, shot

schießen

show, showed, shown (showed)

zeigen

shrink, shrank/shrunk, shrunk

schrumpfen

shut, shut, shut

schließen; (shut up: die Klappe halten)

sing, sang, sung

singen

sink, sank/sunk, sunk

sinken

sit, sat, sat

sitzen

slay, slew, slain

erschlagen

sleep, slept, slept

schlafen

slide, slid, slid

gleiten

sling, slung, slung

schlingen

slit, slit, slit

schlitzen

smell, smelt, smelt (smelled, esp. US)

riechen, stinken

sow, sowed, sowed/sown

säen

speak, spoke, spoken

sprechen

speed, sped, sped (speeded)

eilen, rasen

spell, spelt, spelt (spelled, esp. US)

buchstabieren

spend, spent, spent

verbringen (z.B. Ferien); ausgeben (z.B.Geld)

spill, spilt, spilt (spilled, esp. US)

verschütten

spin, spun, spun

sich drehen; spinnen (Garn)

spit, spat, spat (US: spit)

spucken

split, split, split

spalten

spoil, spoilt, spoilt (spoiled, esp. US)

verderben; verziehen (Kind)

spread, spread, spread

(s.) aus-, verbreiten

spring, sprang/sprung, sprung

springen

stand, stood, stood

stehen; (stand up: aufstehen vom Stuhl, etc.)

steal, stole, stolen

stehlen

stick, stuck, stuck

kleben; (an)haften (vgl. Sticker)

sting, stung, stung

stechen (Insekt)

stink, stank/stunk, stunk

stinken, übel riechen

strike, struck, struck

schlagen

string, strung, strung

mit Saiten bespannen

strive, strove, striven

s. bemühen, anstrengen

swear, swore, sworn

schwören; fluchen

sweat, sweat, sweat (sweated)

schwitzen (vgl. Sweatshirt)

sweep, swept, swept

kehren, fegen

swell, swelled, swollen (swelled)

(an- )schwellen

swim, swam, swum

schwimmen

swing, swung, swung

schwingen

take, took, taken

nehmen; (hin-, weg-) bringen

teach, taught, taught

lehren, unterrichten

tear, tore, torn

zerreißen

tell, told, told

erzählen

think, thought, thought

denken; meinen

throw, threw, thrown

werfen

thrust, thrust, thrust

(weg-, hin)schleudern

tread, trod, trodden

treten; gehen

wake, woke, woken (US also: waked)

(auf)wecken; (auf)wachen

wear, wore, worn

tragen (Kleider)

weave, wove, woven

weben

wed, wed, wed (wedded)

heiraten

weep, wept, wept

weinen

wet, wet, wet (only US)

nass machen

win, won, won

gewinnen, siegen

wind, wound, wound

(s.) winden

wring, wrung, wrung

(aus-) wringen

write, wrote, written

schreiben

prefixes: a-/ broad-/  for / fore-/ mis-/ over-/ re-/ un-/ under-/ up-/  with-

see verbs without prefixes

 

 

3.The Tenses

(in chronological order)

 

There are 3 basic tenses,

each of them has its perfect tense; so that’s 6 tenses !

 

(if you replace will by would you may call it Conditional Tense - you may as well replace will by can, could, etc -

thus, of course, changing the meaning of the sentence !)

 

 

 

 

PAST

 

PRESENT

 

FUTURE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I hope we will be together for ever.

 

 

 

 

We will have been married for 7 years next August.

Simple Future

 

 

 

Every day people get married or divorced.

Future Perfect

 

 

 

I have just told you, we have been married since 1993.

Simple Present

 

 

 

We got married on August, 1993.

Present Perfect

 

 

 

We had lived together for 3 years before we got married.

Simple Past

 

 

 

 

Past Perfect

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.Signal Words for Tenses

 

Signal Words can help you

use the correct tense

 

Simple PAST

Simple PRESENT

Simple FUTURE

I went to Paris last year.

Last year I went to Paris.

Every day he goes to school.

He goes to school every day.

Next week we will try to win.

We will try to win next week.

Yesterday I went to Hanau.

I went to Hanau yesterday.

He always/ usually/ often/ frequently/ sometimes/ seldom/ never goes to football matches.

Tomorrow we will try to win.

We will try to win tomorrow.

Three days ago I went to Oy.

I went to Oy three days ago.

Sometimes/ Once in a while he goes to a pub.

In (the) future we will try to win more games.

We will try to win more games in (the) future.

 

He goes to a pub sometimes/ once in a while.

We will go to London in the near future/ soon.

 

Occasionally he goes to a pub.

This evening/ Tonight we’ll watch TV.

We’ll watch TV this evening/ tonight.

(I went to Oy in June.)

(I went to Oy on June 27th.)

(He goes to ... regularly.)

(He goes to ... on Sundays.)

(We hope/ believe you will come!)

PAST Perfect

PRESENT Perfect

FUTURE Perfect

Before that happened/ Up to that time/ Until he had that accident, he had been a very happy person.

He had been a very happy person before that happened/ up to that time/ until he had that accident.

I haven’t seen him this week/ today.

This week/ Today I haven’t seen him (yet).

By 5: 30 p.m./ By the end of the week/ By next Tuesday evening I will have finished it.

I will have finished it by 5: 30 p.m./ .by the end of the week/ by next Tuesday evening.

A long time before he had met him for the first time.

He had met him for the first time a long time before.

I have worked here for more than 20 years.

For more than 20 years I have worked here.

 

 

I have worked here since 1977.

Since 1977 I have worked here.

 

 

Have you ever done it?

Have you done it yet?

Yes, I have already done it.

No, I have not done it yet.

No, I still haven’t done it.

(No, I’ ve never done it.)

 

 

Up to now/ So far/ until now/ As yet I have written 24 pages.

 

 

I’ ve written 24 pages up to now/ so far/ until now/ as yet.

 

 

He has just left the house.

 

 

 

5.Special: Present Perfect

 

abused by English speaking people - misused by foreigners:

 

a special on the most difficult tense for German learners

 

Simple PAST

Simple PRESENT

Simple FUTURE

 

 

 

PAST Perfect

PRESENT Perfect

FUTURE Perfect

 

have/has + 3rd form

(past participle)

 

                                                                                                                                   

 

Anwendungsfälle:

Beispielsätze:

 

1. gerade eben passiert (just)

1. I have just called him.

2. irgendwann einmal

(ever; never)

2. Have you ever been to Rome?

I’ ve never been to Rome.

3. bisher schon einmal

(up to now/ as yet)

3. Up to now I’ve met him twice.

4. seit

(since; for)*

4. I have known him since 1989.

I have known him for 8 years (now).

 

 

* Zeitpunkt: since: since August; since 9 o’ clock

                      Zeitraum: for: for 3 hours; for 5 years

 

 

6.Auxiliary Verbs

 

 

Help ! - You need help ?

 

There are helping verbs

(but they call them “auxiliary verbs“)

 

Auxiliary Verbs modify

the following ordinary verb

 

 

 

 

1. Full Auxiliary Verbs are also used as ordinary verbs.

There are 3 of them:

 

full auxiliary verbs

meaning as an ordinary verb

use as an auxiliary verb

to be, was/ were, been

sein;

u.v.a.m. (in Wendungen)

Continuous Form (+ -ing) (---)

Passive Voice (+ 3. Form) (werden)

to do, did, done

tun, machen;

u.v.a.m. (in Wendungen)

Questions (---)

Negations (---)

Short Answers (---)

Question Tags (nicht wahr ?)

Special cases

to have, had, had

haben, besitzen;

u.v.a.m. (in Wendungen)

Perfect Tenses (haben; sein)

 

2. Defective Auxiliary Verbs (Modal Verbs)

There are about 10 of them:

 

They are called “defective“ because they have:

no 3 verb forms (infinitive; Simple Past; 3. form/ past participle)

no ing-form (Present Participle; Gerund)

no conjugation (he, she, it -“s“; singular/ plural)

no imperative

 

You use them by replacing WILL.

For other tenses or forms you must/ have to use a

substitute with 3 verb forms

(some of them may be used for Simple Past)*

 

defective auxiliary verbs

translation

substitutes

must (mustn’t= darf nicht )

muss, musst, müssen, müsst

to have to

can (*could)

kann, kannst, können, könnt

to be able to

could

könnte, könntest, könnten, könntet

---

shall (*should)

soll, sollst, sollen, sollt;

(angeblich)

to be to;

to be said to

should

sollte, solltest, sollten, solltet

---

will (*would)

werde, wirst, wird, werden, werdet

be going to

would

würde, würdest, würden, würdet

---

may (might)

darf/ kann, darfst/ kannst, dürfen/ können, dürft/ könnt (eventuell, vielleicht)

to be allowed to (nur für dürfen)

might

dürfte/ könnte, dürftest/ könntest, dürften/ könnten, dürftet/ könntet

---

ought to (= should)

sollte, solltest, sollten, solltet

to be to

needn’t

brauche/ muss, brauchst/ musst, braucht/ muss, brauchen/ müssen nicht

not to have to

 

 

7.Negations

 

„to do“ as an auxiliary verb

 

You should say, “No !“ once in a while - it improves your position ! But you must do it the way the Hessians do it:

 

 

H:„Worum dust dann du des alles uffschreiwe ?“

 

P:„Ei, isch du des doch nett alles uffschreiwe !“

 

H:„Ei, warum dust dann du nett alles uffschreiwe ?“

 

 

(no ‘DO’ if there already is another auxiliary verb !)

 

 

 

SIMPLE PRESENT

examples

1. positive Aussagesätze (affirmative)

You like travelling. (He/She/It likes !...)

2. verneinte Sätze (negative)

You do not (= don't) like travelling.

3. Fragesätze (interrogative)

Do you like travelling ?

4. verneinte Fragesätze (negative interrogative)

Do you not (= Don't you) like travelling ?

5. Kurzantworten (nicht zu übersetzen)

Yes, I do./ No, I do not (= don't).

6. Frageanhängsel (question tags)

(nicht wahr ?, oder nicht ?, oder doch ?, gell ?)

(1)You like travelling, do you not (= don't you)? (2)You don't like travelling, do you ?

7. Aufforderung/ Befehl (imperative)

Shut the window, please.

8. verneinte Aufforderung (negative imperative)

Do not (= Don't) torture animals.

Anmerkungen (annotations):

examples

1. und 2.auch als Entrüstungs- oder unechte Frage möglich

You like travelling ?/ You do not (= don't) like travelling ?

bei: he/ she/ it, etc.: does statt do

z. B. 2. He does not like travelling.

vor allem in der gesprochenen Sprache wird vorzugsweise die zusammengezogenen Formen „don’t“ /„doesn’t “verwendet.

z. B. 2. You don’t like travelling.

z. B. 2. He doesn’t like travelling.

Ausnahmen (exceptions): (d. h. kein „do“!)

 

a) wenn bereits ein Hilfsverb oder

eine Form von „be“ vorhanden ist

 

He isn't rich. (aber: Don't be silly !- s. 8.)

Auxiliary Verb to be (am,are,is)

He isn't sleeping.

Auxiliary Verb to have (sofern nicht das Vollverb ‘besitzen’ gemeint ist !)

Have you met him before ? (aber: Do you have a new car ?- Besitzt Du ein...)

Defective auxiliary verbs: can, could, may, might, must, (need), ought to, shall, should, will, would (kein he/she/it -s ! keine 3 Stammformen! keine ing-Form !)

z. B. 2. You needn't complain.

z. B. 3. May I have another one ?

z. B. 4. Can’t you tell him tomorrow?

z. B. 5. Yes, I ought to.

b) positive Frage nach dem Subjekt (wer oder was ?)

Who likes travelling ? („who“ wie he/ she/ it !) (aber: Who doesn't like travelling ?- s. 2.)

SIMPLE PAST

 

wie SIMPLE PRESENT 2.- 6., aber: „did“ statt „do/ does“ !

1. You saw him.

2. You didn't see him.   etc.

Note:

 

alle FUTURE TENSES ohnedo“, da bereits das Hilfsverb „will“ vorhanden ist !

z.B. 2. I will not (=won’t) tell him.

alle CONDITIONAL TENSES/ TENSES with AUXILIARY VERBS ohne do,da bereits das Hilfsverb „would“, “can“, etc. vorhanden ist !

z. B. 3. Would you tell him about it ?

alle PERFECT TENSES ohnedo“, da bereits das Hilfsverb „to have“ vorhanden ist !

z. B. 4. Haven’t you finished yet ?

alle CONTINUOUS FORMS ohnedo“, da bereits das Hilfsverb „to be“ vorhanden ist !

z. B. 2. He wasn’t sleeping, when I came in.

 

alle Passivsätze ohnedo“, da bereits das Hilfsverb „to be“ („werden“) vorhanden ist !

z.B: 1. This book was not written by Noah.

 

 

8.Asking Questions

 

They say asking questions

makes you wise.

 

Tense/ Form with Auxiliary Verb

or form of to BE

Auxiliary Verb

 

1.   

all Future Tenses

will

2.   

all Conditional Tenses/

would

3.   

Auxiliary Verb Tenses

can/ could/ must, etc.

4.   

all Perfect Tenses

to have: have/ has; had

5.   

Continuous Form- all Tenses

to be: am/ are/ is; was/ were

6.   

Passive Voice- all Tenses

to be: am/ are/ is; was/ were

7.   

to be

to be: am/ are/ is; was/ were

 

Question starts with Auxiliary Verb or form of to BE

Word Order: P1 (AUX) - SUBJECT - P2 (VERB)

 

EXAMPLES:

 

1.   

When will you do that ?

2.   

Would you do that ?

3.   

Can you help me ?

4.   

Has he already done his homework ?

5.   

Is he sleeping ?

6.   

When was that bridge built ?

7.   

Are you American ?

 

Tense/ Form with no Auxiliary Verb

Auxiliary Verb to DO

 

1.   

Simple Present

do/ does (for he/ she/ it)

2.   

Simple Past

did

 

Question starts with Auxiliary Verb to do

Word Order: P1 (to do) - SUBJECT - P2 (VERB)

 

EXAMPLES:

 

1.   

What time do you get up in the morning ?/

How does she feel about him ?

2.   

When did you write that ?

 

Exception: asking about the subject (positively !)

 

Examples:

Who cares ?/ Who understood that ?

 

but (negatively !):

Who does not care ?/ Who did not understand that ?

 

 

 

 

9.Types of Sentences

 

the 4 main types

 

Type

Simple PAST

Simple PRESENT

Simple FUTURE

affirmative

(Aussage)

They

wrote

letters.

 

They

write

letters.

They

will write

letters.

interrogative

(Frage)

Did they

write

letters?

 

Do they

write

letters?

Will they

write

letters?

 

 

 

 

negative

(verneinte Aussage)

They

didn’t write

letters.

 

They

don’t write

letters.

They

won’t write

letters.

interrogative

negative

(verneinte Frage)

Didn’t they

write

letters?

 

Don’t they

write

letters?

Won’t they

write

letters?

Type

PAST Perfect

PRESENT Perfect

FUTURE Perfect

affirmative

(Aussage)

They

had

written

letters.

 

They

have

written

letters.

They

will have

written

letters.

interrogative

(Frage)

Had they

written

letters?

 

Have they

written

letters?

Will they have

written

letters?

 

 

 

 

negative

(verneinte Aussage)

They

hadn’t

written

letters.

 

They

haven’t

written

letters.

They

won’t have

written

letters.

interrogative

negative

(verneinte Frage)

Hadn’t they

 

written

letters?

 

Haven’t they

 

written

letters?

Won’t they

have

written

letters?

 

 

 

10.Continuous Form

(alias Progressive Form; alias Verlaufsform; alias “ing“- Form)

 

The expression “ing- form” is the least best, because you can use the ing-form for more than the Continuous Form and

the Continuous Form is more than just the ing– form; it’s:

to BE (was / were // am / is / are // will be // had been // have been / has been // will have been) + ing-form !!

 

11.Simple and Continuous Forms

 

Simple PAST

Simple PRESENT

Simple FUTURE

Condit.

I ate...

I eat...

I’ll eat...

 

I would

eat...

PAST

Continuous

PRESENT

Continuous

FUTURE

Continuous

Condit.

Contin.

I was eating..

I am

eating..

I’ll be

eating...

 

I would be eating

...

 

 

 

 

PAST Perfect

PRESENT Perfect

FUTURE Perfect

Cond.Per.

I had eaten...

I have eaten...

I’ll have eaten...

 

I would have eaten ...

PAST Perfect

Continuous

PRESENT Perfect

Continuous

FUTURE Perfect

Continuous

Cond.Per.

Contin.

I had been eating..

I have been eating..

(I’ll have been eating...)

 

(I would have been eating ...)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bildung der Continuous Form:

 

corresponding tense of

to be

+ “ing“ Form

of the Verb

 

Anwendung der Continuous Form:

 

gerade dabei oder die Dauer betonend

 

Achtung: Verben, die keine dauerhafte momentane Tätigkeit beschreiben,

haben keine Continuous Form (to be als „sein“; to know; u.a.)

 

 

12.Special: Future

 

Is there more than 1 future ?

 

Ich sehe dich dann morgen !

tense/ form

meaning

I’ll see you tomorrow, then.

Simple Future

(from Simple Forms sixpack)

neutral;

it will certainly happen;

soon, spontaneous

I’ll be seeing you tomorrow, then.

Future Continuous

(from Continuous Forms sixpack)

stressing the action; mentally already doing it

I’m going to see you tomorrow, then.

Substitute

“to be going to“ (Present Continuous of to go)

intention, plan

I’m seeing you tomorrow, then.

Present Continuous (only with future time adverbial, otherwise ambiguous)

planned, sure

 

 

tense/ form

meaning

My train leaves at 6:30 tomorrow morning.

 

 

 

 

If I see you tomorrow I will tell you.

As soon as we get there we’ll see it.

Simple Present

only scheduled times (e.g. timetables),

regular; almost 100 per cent sure;

if-clauses type I;

some time adv.

 

 

(Future Perfect)

 

 

tense/ form

meaning

I’m sure it will have left by 6:35.

Future Perfect

wird spätestens zum genannten Zeitpunkt beendet sein

As soon as we have arrived,

we’ll have a rest.

Present Perfect

after some time adverbials

 

 

13.Active and Passive Voice

 

ACTIVE  VOICE:

(sentence starts with the doer, ends up with the victim - if there is any !)

(Subject = doer  ---  Object = victim)

 

or

 

PASSIVE  VOICE

(sentence starts with the victim)

(Subject = victim  ---  object = doer)

 

Passive Voice needs a victim !

Passive Voice does not need a doer !

 

 

In English the Passive Voice is formed with “to BE”.

to be (sein = active voice) or

to be (werden = passive voice)

that is the question !)

 

 

You form the  passive voice

  with the corresponding tense and form of to be

+ the 3rd form (past participle) of the original verb

the doer (subject of sentence in active voice) can be added using by...

 

To be in passive voice sentences is “werden“ in German !

 

Example in Simple Present:

 

 

Subject

Predicate

Object

Active Voice:

This man

eats

a lot of vegetables.

Passive Voice:

A lot of vegetables

are eaten

(by this man).

 

Example in Present Continuous:

 

 

S.

P.

O.

Active V.

Thomas

is eating

a pizza.

Passive V.

A pizza

is being eaten

(by Thomas).

 

Example with 2 Objects:

 

 

S.

P.

O. (1)

O. (2)

Active V.

They

have promised

this worker

better conditions.

Passive V. (1)

This worker

has been promised

better conditions

(by them).

 

 

 

 

 

Passive V. (2)

Better conditions

have been promised

to this worker

(by them).

 

Translation problems:

 

The club members were thanked for their contributions.

Den Klubmitgliedern wurde für ihre Beiträge gedankt.

 

This problem was spoken about again and again.

Über dieses Problem wurde immer wieder gesprochen.

 

The old man was taken care of.

Man kümmerte sich um den alten Mann.

Man nahm sich des alten Mannes an.

 

Mr. Dean is said to be a millionaire.

Von Herrn Dean wird gesagt/ Herrn Dean wird nachgesagt, ein Millionär zu sein/ er sei Millionär. Herr Dean ist angeblich Millionär.

Herr Dean soll (angeblich) Millionär sein.

 

Uncle George enjoys being told a joke.

Onkel Georg hat es gerne, wenn man ihm einen Witz erzählt/ wenn er einen Witz erzählt bekommt.

 

Active and Passive Voice in Contrast

 

Active Voice

Form/ Tense

Passive Voice

 

1.    

to drive

Infinitive

to be driven

2.    

to swim

 

--- (intransitive verb=no object)

 

1.    

driving

Present Participle

being driven

2.    

swimming

 

--- (intransitive verb=no object)

 

 

6 Tenses

 

 

 

Simple Form

 

 

1.   

I drove the car.

Past

The car was driven by me.

2.   

You swim every day.

Present

--- (no object)

3.   

He will do it soon.

Future

It will be done by him soon.

4.   

We had asked him before.

Past Perfect

He had been asked

by us before.

5.   

You have always been friendly.

Present Perfect

--- (no object)

6.   

They will have phoned me by noon.

Future Perfect

I will have been phoned

by them by noon.

 

 

Continuous Form

 

 

1.   

I was driving the car.

Past

The car was being driven by me.

2.   

You are swimming now.

Present

--- (no object)

3.   

He will be doing it soon.

Future

It will be being done

by him soon.

4.   

We had been asking him before.

Past Perfect

He had been being asked by us before.

5.   

(no Continuous Form of to be)

Present Perfect

--- (no object; no ing-form)

6.   

(They will have been phoning me by noon.)

(Future Perfect)

(I will have been being phoned by them by noon.)

 

 

Kurzformel Passiv

 

 

Simple ® Continuous

 

 

being vor Hauptverb

 

z.B. 1. The car was driven by me.® The car was being driven by me.

 

 

Tenses
Simple and Continuous Forms

Active and Passive Voice

 

Simple Forms  -  Active Voice

 

Tense

Form

PAST

PRESENT

FUTURE

SIMPLE

 

Last year he wrote his 21st novel.

He writes a novel every year.

Next year he will write his 23rd novel.

PERFECT

SIMPLE

He had written poems before he started writing novels.

He has already written 21 novels.

He will have written his current novel by the end of this year.

 

Continuous Forms  -  Active Voice

 

Tense

Form

PAST

PRESENT

FUTURE

CONTINUOUS

 

He was writing his 21st novel when I visited him last year.

At present he is writing his 22nd novel.

He will be writing his 23rd novel next year.

PERFECT

CONTINUOUS

He had been writing poems before he started writing novels.

He has been writing his current novel for 10 months now.

(He will have been writing his current novel by the end of this year.)

 

Simple Forms  -  Passive Voice

 

Tense

Form

PAST

PRESENT

FUTURE

SIMPLE

 

Last year his 21st novel was written (by him).

Every year a novel is written by him.

Next year his 23rd novel will be written (by him).

PERFECT

SIMPLE

Before he started writing novels poems had been written by him.

For the last 21 years 21 novels have been written by him.

By the end of this year his 22nd novel will have been written(by him).

 

Continuous Forms  -  Passive Voice

 

Tense

Form

PAST

PRESENT

FUTURE

CONTINUOUS

 

His 21st novel was being written (by him) when I visited him last year.

His 22nd novel is being written (by him) at the moment.

Next year his 23rd novel will be being written

(by him).

PERFECT

CONTINUOUS

Poems had been being written (by him) before he started writing novels.

His current novel has been being written (by him )for 10 months now.

(His current novel will have been being written (by him) by the end of next year.)

 

 

14.Translation

 

(different aims and purposes)

 

school: be close to the text*

songs: match melody, rhythm, rhyme, etc

movies (sychronisation): match movements of actors’ lips

literature: attract reader;

create mood (cf. contrastive examples of the beginning of the novel "wuthering heights" at wuthering-heights )

science/ technology/ business/ law: inform; be understandable, use technical terms !

politics: avoid misunderstandings

others : meet other demands

 

*teacher must check knowledge and skills (vocabulary and grammar) !

 

 Checklist

 

 

1. Preparation

·      Read the whole text (scanning)

·      Underline unknown words ( _ )

·      Mark difficult passages (?)

 

2. Comprehension

·      Analyse the sentence to be translated (Structure: clauses)

·      Analyse the clauses (S., P., O.: Who does what? Who is/ becomes what?)

·      Find out the meaning of unknown words (look up in dictionary/ word list; ask teacher/ others; conclude from the context)

·      Guess from similarities with German or foreign words (but: false friends !)

·      Try to understand the meaning of the sentence (grasping)

 

3. Translation

·      Translate as literally as possible into as good a German as necessary (as for word order, phrases, idioms, technical terms)

·      Translate words with different meanings or different German equivalents by choosing the most appropriate (suitable) one (e.g. it can be: er, sie, es, ihn, sie)

·      Do not offer alternatives for the translation of a word or a passage to have the corrector decide on the correct or most appropriate one

·      Do not translate proper names (persons, towns, streets, institutions, etc)

·      You may but need not translate words of foreign origin existing in German (e.g. streetworker, timing, space shuttle, etc)

·      No omissions! No additions! (unless necessary) Þ exceptions: e.g. shortened relative clauses: the people shown in the picture...= the people who are shown in the picture...: Die Menschen, die auf dem Bild gezeigt/ dargestellt werden, ... or: Die auf dem Bild gezeigten/ dargestellten Menschen ...; or e.g.:

industry/ nature/ science, etc = die Industrie/ die Natur/ die Wissenschaft

·      Check the whole sentence and then proceed to the next one

·      Keep margins on the final sheets you hand in (left side about 2 cm for punching and filing; right side for correction marks and comments: at least 5 cm or 2 inches)

 

4. Finish

·      Check the whole translation (as for omissions of words/ sentences/ passages; German word order; style, etc)

·      Translate the title of the text

 

 

15.Structure of sentences

 

 

Sentences can consist of several clauses (main and sub(ordinate) clauses).

At least one of them must be a main clause; as sub clauses cannot be sentences.

(Clauses mostly are not divided by commas- in German they almost always are !)

 

Sentences must at least contain one subject (S) and one predicate (P).

Clauses usually also have a subject and a predicate.

 

Subjects are nouns (with articles or pronouns) or pronouns or names or question words (e.g.: The/ His house/ He/ which/ Peter/ Who is ...?)

or a few others (e.g.: There is ...).

 

Predicates are always verbs (with or without auxiliary verbs).

 

Sentences and clauses do not need objects.

It depends on the verb of the predicate whether the sentence needs an object or not.

 

Verbs which are followed by an object are called transitive verbs.

Verbs which are not followed by an object are called intransitive verbs.

(Many verbs can be used as either transitive or intransitive verbs.)

 

Objects are nouns (with articles or pronouns) or pronouns or names.

(e.g.: ... the/ his house/ him/ (to )Peter.)

 

The verb to be is neither transitive nor intransitive. It is followed by an adjective (e.g. He is rich.) or a noun or pronoun or name

(e.g. He is a doctor. It’s me. This is Tom.) as complements of the predicate.

(As for adjectives, the same applies to a few other verbs like

to feel/ sound/ smell/ taste, i.e.verbs describing the senses: e.g.: taste good)

 

The word order:

Subject - Predicate - (Object)

(S.P.O.)

is essential in English.

There are only a few exceptions (e.g.: “What’s that ?“, asked Tom. or: ..., Tom asked.).

 

         P.    S.

           S.     P.

There is no inversion

(Mike fährt ...)

(Jeden Morgen fährt Mike ...)

like in German:

             S.     P.

                                  P.     S.

in English:

Mike goes ...

Every morning Mike goes ...

 

            S.      P.

                                S.      P.

 

If predicates consist of several verbs (including auxiliary verbs) they are not separated by an object like in German: (Ich habe alle meine Hausaufgaben gemacht..)

                                                                     S.   P1.                   O.                      P2.

in English:

 I have done all my homework.

 

S.       P.                   O.

 

 

 

 

 

 

If predicates contain auxiliary verbs, these appear in front of the main verbs.

 

If (predicates of) clauses do not contain auxiliary verbs (i.e. Simple Present and Simple Past) the verb to do is used as an auxiliary verb (in front of the predicate)

in questions and negative statements.

 

There is 1 exception to the rule: positive questions referring to the subject

(Who or What ?) (e.g.: “Who stole the diamonds ?“)

No auxiliary verb !

 

Only the first verbs (including auxiliary verbs) of the predicates are conjugated (if possible):

                 numerus (singular/ plural), e.g.: I am/ you are laughing; he/ she/ it- “s“, I have/ He has ...

                 tempus (tenses), e.g.: I am/ I was ...

                 modus (indicative/ conjunctive), e.g.: I was/ if I were (or: I was)..., (in German: war/ wäre;

                 in English normally identical, e.g.: had = hatte or hätte; was = war or wäre !)

                 kind of action: Active/ Passive Voice, e.g.: I stole it/ It was stolen.

 

The he/ she/ it- “s“ is only used in

Simple Present (He/ she/ it writes, reads, etc.) and Present Perfect (He/ she/ it has left).

 

Parts of speech (how to ask)

 

S

P

O

 

question word

examples

examples

question word

examples

Who?

Mike

likes

Who(m)?

Susan.

 

His father

is sleeping.

---

---

 

She

writes

What?

a diary.

What?

The house

is big.

---

---

 

It

is hot.

---

---

 

That

sounds good.

---

---

 

Many clauses contain adverbials (A). They are no necessary components of clauses.

 

A

 

type of adverbial

question word

examples

time, period or frequency

When?

last Friday

 

What time?

at 7 p.m.

 

How long?

for two hours

 

How often?

twice a week

place or direction

Where?

at the bus stop; in hospital

 

Where to?

to Paris

 

Where from?

from Frankfurt

way or instrument

How?

(by) showing false documents

 

What with?

with a hammer

reason or cause

Why?

due to fog

 

Because of what?

because of being late

purpose or aim

What for?

(in order) to impress her

 

 

16.Relative Clauses

 

Relativity: Albert Einstein’s theory of the universe based on the principle that measures of space and time are relative.

 

Using relative pronouns

in relative clauses

can be relatively unnecessary sometimes

 

Relative Clauses are always Subordinate Clauses.

Usually they start with a Relative Pronoun.

 

Relative Pronouns

 

case

German

English

 

subject (wer oder was ?)

der/ die/ das

(welcher/ welche/ welches)

Persons: who/ (that)

Others: which/ that

object (wem ?)

dative/ indirect object;

(prepositional object)

dem/ der/ dem

(welchem/ welcher/ welchem)

Persons: to who(m)/ (that)

Others: to which/ to that

(other prepositions

instead of “to“)

object (wen oder was ?)

accusative/ direct object

den/ die/ das

(welchen/ welche/ welches)

Persons: who(m)/ (that)

Others: which/ that

 

Defining Relative Pronouns (unentbehrliche Relativpronomen)

(no commas !)

 

subject case

(Relative Clause has

no subject of its own !)

That’s the author who/ (that) wrote the novel “Mom“.

That’s the novel which/ that was written by the author.

 

object case

(Relative Clause has

a subject of its own !)

That’s the author [who(m)/ (that)] I congratulated on

his novel “Mom“.

That’s the author [who(m)/ (that)] I met last night.

That’s the novel [which/ that] I congratulated the author on.

That’s the novel [which/ that] I’ve already read six times.

 

Non- Defining Relative Pron