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  1. The separate letters are symbols (abbreviations of the Latin and mostly also English names)  of the chemical elements. The named elements are the main parts of synthetic materials: C = carbon; H = hydrogen; O = oxygen; N = nitrogen; CL = chlorine; S = sulphur
  2. U = R · I   (voltage = resistance · amperage)
  3. p = F : A, i.e. Force divided by Area; with the same force (numerator) an enlargement of the area (denominator) leads to a smaller value of the pressure p (weight distribution) (e.g. step planks at roof works; high heels leave pressure points in soft floor covering, normal heels do not!)
  4. A circumference is a length. It can be a sum of 2 or more lengths (e.g. 3 m + 4 m = 7 m ). Area is a product of 2 lengths (e.g. 3 m · 4 m = 12 m² )
  5. There are almost 14, 000, 000 combinations to select 6 out of 49 numbers! The probability to guess the 6 correct lottery numbers with 1 game, is about 1 to 14, 000, 000, i.e. one would have to play almost 14, 000, 000 different games to have a guaranteed "6 correct numbers" in 1 lottery draw. This would last very long and cost a lot!    By the way: the exact number is 13, 983, 815, calculated from: (49 · 48 · 47 · 46 · 45 · 44) divided by (1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6)
  6. The density ρ (rho) of a material indicates how many times heavier than water it is. Water has the density of 1 (at 4° C, or 39.2° F) (Actually, in the 18th century, 1 kg was defined as being the mass of 1 litre of water). So Aluminium (density: 2,7) is 2,7 times heavier than water. The comparison assumes equal volumes. Density is defined as mass/ volume. The unit of density is kg per cubic decimeter (kg/dm³), i.e. 1 dm³ (= 1 liter) of water weighs 1 kg; 1 dm³ of aluminium 2,7 kg. As 1 kg = 1000 g and 1 dm³ = 1000 cm³, 1 kg/ dm³ = 1 g/ cm³ (= 1 ton/ m³, 1,000 kg being 1 ton, and 1,000 dm³ being 1 m³)
  7. The prefix re- means again or one more time.
  8. The prefix co-/ con-/ com- means together (with).
  9. In every circle the circumference is π (pi) times the diameter, i.e. U = π · d (or: π = U : d). The value of π is 3,14159...  Mostly the rounding 3,14 is sufficient for most calculations. However, most pocket calculators have a π-key. π has no unit!
  10. Extracting a root in mathematics is the contrary to multiplying a number with itself, i.e. the (square) root of 16 = 4, because 4 · 4 (also " " = "4 to the power of 2") = 16! The (square) root of 2 is 1,414213562373095048801688724..., rounded: 1,414; since 1,414... · 1,414... = 2! By the way: the third root of 8 = 2; since 2 · 2 · 2 (also " "= "2 to the power of 3") = 8!              
  11. If the precedent vowel is spoken shortly, the former " ß " is now written " ss " (e.g. Fass (barrel); muss (must); Schluss (end) ). The letter " ß " still remains if the precedent vowel is spoken long (e.g. Fuß (foot); Maß (measure) ) or if a diphthong (double vowel) precedes (e.g. Fleiß (diligence) ). By the way: this new manner of writing concerns only approx. 150 different words and syllables.
  12. das = dies (this) (demonstrative pronoun) (e.g. das ist ... (this/ that is ...) ); das : article (in front of a noun) (e.g. das ist das Mädchen, ... (this is the girl, ...) ); das = that/ who/ which (relative pronoun) (e.g. das ist das Mädchen, das behauptet hat, ... (this is the girl that/ who claimed ...) ); dass : conjunction (e.g. das ist das Mädchen, das behauptet hat, dass es ... (this is the girl who claimed, that she ...)
  13. Nominal (from Latin "nomen" = name) is what is written on the paper (e.g. wage/ salary on the wage-/ salary statement); Real (cf reality) is the real, true value of nominal (e.g. value, purchasing power of the income).
  14. At a market sellers and buyers meet and bargain a price. This is determined by the number of sellers and the amount of the goods offered (offer) and the number the buyers and the amount of the goods which they want to buy (demand). Apart from real markets (flea market, weekly market, supermarket; market for used cars, etc) there are also abstract markets (labour market; real estate market; etc)
  15. AIDA is the basis of all advertising and describes the procedure of the effect of an advertising measure: the 4 letters stand for the English words: Attention (excite) (attention); Interest (wake) (interest); Desire (wake) (wish); Action (business) (real purchase). The continuation of AIDA is AIDAC, the C standing for Confirmation ("Warm congratulations! You have acquired a high-quality product... ") and serving customer's care.
  16. Atoms are the smallest particles of elements which still have all characteristics of the material. There are only about 105 elements on the earth (e.g. iron; oxygen). Molecules are the smallest particles of chemical connections (e.g., water; common salt)  which still have all characteristics of the connection. Molecules consist of 2 or several atoms.
  17. An atom consists of an atomic nucleus which consists of positively charged protons and neutral neutrons (without any charge) and an atomic shell of several "sub- shells" which consist of negatively charged electrons. An atom has as many protons as electrons, thus being electrically neutral.
  18. The Atomium in Bruxelles was established for the world exhibition of 1958. It represents a grid cell of 9 iron atoms (enormously inlarged). Metals have a crystalline structure with a regular arrangement of the atoms; therefore some metals can be joined in the doughy condition again (welding).
  19. Ions are "charged atoms" because they either have more electrons than protons (negatively charged -, mostly non-metals) or fewer (positively charged +, mostly metals). On mineral water bottles the ions of the minerals are often named (e.g. Mg2+, i.e. the Magnesium ions have 2 electrons too little on the outer layer of the atomic shell; CL-, i.e. the chlorine atom has 1 electron too much on the outer layer of the atomic shell).
  20. All economic action of national economics takes place in the sectors primary production (agriculture and forestry, etc), production (e.g. automobile manufacturer) and services (e.g. banks, trade, transport). In 2000 workers and employees in Germany were distributed as follows: 3,5% / 37,5% / 59% respectively. The per cent numbers give explanation about the state of development of national economics (high 1st figure: agricultural country; high middle figure: fast-developing nation on the way to industrialization; high 3rd figure: modern industrial nation with high degree of automation in production). 

  21. Gross is before deductions, net is after deductions (e.g. pay; weight) (G comes before N in the alphabet!).

  22. 3/4 = 0,75 (with the pocket calculator: 3 : 4) (for a fraction stroke means: divided by!).

  23. inter- = between (e.g. internationally = between countries, connected with each other; intercity = between cities); intra-/ intro- = into (e.g. intravenously = into the vein, syringe!); introvert = inward-looking, withdrawn, reserved, secluded, person!) By the way: Internet does not mean international net, but: connected with each other

  24. Per cent means "of hundred", so 10% of 100 = 10; 10% of 20 = 2; 5% of 20 = 1 (calculation: 5 :  100 · 20 = 5/100 · 20 = 1); 16% of 346,75 = ? (calculation: 16/100 · 346,75 or 0,16 · 346,7 = 55,48)  By the way: if the number 346,75 was an amount of a bill (= 100%) and 55,48 (16%) the value added tax, one would have to add 346,75 + 55,48 or faster: 116% · 346,75 or 1,16 times 346,75 = 402,23)

  25. ex- = out (of) (e.g. export: "out of the harbour"; an ex-friend: with him it is "out" (over); eccentrically = out of (away from) the middle; “off- center")

  26. The mass of a body is determined by the sort and number of its atoms or molecules (unit: kg = kilograms). The weight (= the weight force) (from "weigh") indicates the effect of force on account of its mass onto a surface. The weight force is caused by gravitation on earth. (On the moon the same mass, e.g. a person, would weigh much less, because the gravitational force there is much lower than on the earth, namely only approx. one sixth = 1/6). There are other forces apart from the weight force which are caused by other physical processes, e.g.: by pulling, pressing, bending, twisting (unit of the force: N = Newton). Pressure is the effect of a force on a certain surface: the larger the surface, the smaller the pressure; the smaller the surface, the larger the pressure. (Unit: bar; 1 bar = 10 N per cm² or Pascal: 1 bar = 100 000 Pascals).

  27. All named words comprise co(m) - and pos- (3rd form: post): put together (3rd form: put together). One can put together fruits; biological waste or musical notes).

  28. cubic- comes from Kubus (lat.): cube. Because a cube is a three-dimensional (3 D) thing, a "body", it has a volume which is calculated like: length · width · height. 1 cubic meter (1 ) is a cube with a side length of 1 m. Its volume is 1 m · 1 m · 1 m =  1 . Since 1 m = 10 dm, 1 = 10 dm ·  10 dm ·  10 dm = 1000 dm³. With liquids one also says 1 dm = 1 liter. So  1 m³ = 1000 l.  A “two-liter” engine is an engine with approx. 2000 cm³.
  29. With production factors goods are produced or services are offered. These are 1st : ground/ nature (property; buildings; energy; raw materials); 2nd : labour (workers); 3rd : capital (money; credits; machines, devices). Capital has developed - in the course of the centuries or millenniums - from work. Another, modern production factor is 4th : knowhow (patents; administration; organization).
  30. In a democracy the authority is divided into the legislative authority (legislative power) (parliaments); executive (or carrying out) authority (power) (governments; ministers; authorities; police) and the judicial authority (power) (courts).  In dictatorships the king or president does the laws which suit him, rules the way he wants and condemns whom he wants. 
  31. The 3 basic (primary) colours are red, blue and yellow. The secondary colors are compound colours from the primary colours: red + blue = purple; blue + yellow = green; yellow + red = orange.
  32. A 180 °- angle is a straight line. If one turns round from south northwards or from west to east, one has turned by 180 °.
  33. The angular sum in every triangle amounts to 180 °.
  34. One can divide every polygon into triangles (lines must not cut each other). One can then calculate every triangle area with the formula g · h : 2 (with g = 1 side of the triangle, h = the vertical distance from this side up to the opposite top). The sum of all triangle areas makes the total area of the polygon.

  35. 2 complementary colours make white (incident light, colour of the light, 2 sources of light), or black (hitting light, body colour). Complementary colours are red and green; blue and orange; yellow and purple.

  36. (G) KURAP are the initial letters of the branches of the German legal social security in the order of their historical establishment (some were called at first a little bit different): health insurance (1883); accident insurance (1884); pension scheme (1889); unemployment insurance (1927); nursing care insurance (1995).

  37. Above all, brass as well as bronze contain copper. Brass = copper + zinc (light gold colour); bronze = copper + tin (dark brown colour).

  38. Volt (after Mr Volta) is the unit of the electric tension (voltage) U; ampere (after Mr Ampère) is the unit of the amperage I; ohm (after Mr Ohm) is the unit of the electric resistance R; watt (after Mr James Watt) is the unit of the power P. Because of U = R · I à volt = ohm · ampere à with a constant tension (volt) the amperage (ampere) decreases with a rising resistance. Because of P = U · I à  watt = volt · ampere (watt is also named volt-ampere) à with a constant tension, power decreases the (watt) with a falling amperage. Thus power decreases with a rising resistance.

  39. kilo- = one thousand (1, 000); mega- is one million (1, 000, 000); giga- is billion (1000 millions, 1, 000, 000, 000) (application for big numbers, e.g. with watts; bytes)

  40. Rusting is oxidizing: iron atoms combine with oxygen atoms from the air to ferric oxide. Oxidations (reactions of materials with oxygen) are also named combustions. Because rusting takes place much more slowly and without remarkable bright appearances or warmth appearances, rusting is also called "quiet combustion" (in German).

  41. Mandatory deductions of the gross pay are the employee's contributions to the health, care, accident, unemployment insurance and pension fund; from a certain income: wage tax, church tax (if member of a religious community), solidarity contribution (fund reconstruction of former GDR).

  42. The federal republic of Germany is a union of 16 federal states (e.g. Hessen, Bavaria) and city-states (Berlin, Hamburg, Bremen), having their own Prime Minister (city-states: governing mayor) and own ministers (city-states: senators) as well as some laws of their own. But: " federal law breaks federal state law ", i .e. in doubtful cases or conflict cases the law of the federal republic has priority.

  43. Employers and employees divide the contributions to the legal social security in the relation 50 : 50, exception: the employer must carry the contributions to the accident insurance completely (100%).

  44. The most expensive legal social security is the pension fund. At the moment the total contribution is approx. 19% of the gross income (employee's contribution: 50% of it).

  45. Property is the legal, possession the real control of a thing. That is, if the possessor of a thing is not of the owner, he has borrowed, rented, found, taken in care or stolen the thing.

  46. Amnesty (forgive and forget) is a remission (pardon) for offenders granted by the government, mostly because of an important occasion. Amnesia means a loss of memory.

  47. The constitution is the highest law of a state. The constitution of the FRG. still is called "Grundgesetz" (basic law), because there is still no peace treaty after the 2nd world war.

  48. (G) The "active vote" (right to vote) is the right to vote in an election (marking is an activity) (in the FRG.: Germans over 18 years; resident in the electoral area for at least 3 months). The "passive vote" (elegibility) is the right to be elected (one is chosen, Passive Voice) (in the FRG.: Germans over 18 years; German nationality for at least 1 year).

  49. Democracy = people's rule (from Greek: demos = people; kratein = rule)

  50. An emission is an output (from ex- = out of; missio = mission) mostly of pollutants from chimneys or exhaust pipes. An intromission (from intro- = into) is the effect of released pollutants on people, animals, plants, soil, air, water, buildings. 

  51. These designations in shipping navigation mean: starboard = in direction of the traffic on the right; port = in direction of the traffic on the left. Starboard is lit up green, port red, so that one can recognize at night whether a ship goes in the same direction or meets one. Incidentally: aeroplanes use the same colours.

  52. (G) The "Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch" (German Civil Code, in force since 1/1/1900) regulates obligations, legal transactions, law of property, family right, law of succession.

  53. A subject (person, thing or the notion which does something, "doer", mostly at the beginning of the sentence) can be a noun, a pronoun or a name (the pupils speaks; He speaks; Thomas speaks). An object (person, thing, the notion to which something is done, "victim", mostly at the end of the sentence) can be a noun, a pronoun or a name (... searches for the pupil;... searches for him; ... searches forThomas). By the way: in a passive clause (Thomas is searched by Michael) an exchange of subject and object takes place: the "victim" becomes the subject, the "offenders" the object. By the way (2): the activity in the sentence, always a verb (e.g. search), is called predicate.

  54. (G) The "first man" in our country (FRG.) is the Federal President. He is chosen for 5 years and has mainly representative tasks.

  55. (G) The Bundestag = the German parliament = representatives of the people elected by the people (correspondingly: Landtag = parliament of a federal state or Land, kreis assembly = parliament of the district; city parliament), elected in elections to the Bundestag (correspondingly: state elections; elections to the parliament of a federal state or Land; local elections). The Bundesrat = representative of the federal states (Lands). The Federal Assembly = member of the Bundestag + same number of representatives of the federal states (elected by the parliament of a federal state or Land) for special tasks, e.g. the election of the Federal President

  56. Socialisation is the process of a person becoming a member of society and able to decide and act, namely by parental and school education as well as other influences of the environment (friends, mass media like television, radio, newspapers, magazines, Internet). Rehabilitation (re- = again) (in German: "resocialisation") means all measures with which former convicts should be integrated again into society (e.g. by therapies; leisure offers and employment offers, secondary school qualifications; instruction).

  57. Authoritarian education: there are orders, prohibitions and punishments, no participation. Democratic education: principle of the equal rights, common solutions of conflicts by conversations and agreements, rules and borders as a frame. Anti-authoritarian education: no constraints and prohibitions, orientations exist, however, are not put through against the will of the child. Laisser-faire behaviour (French: " let do "): no rules, no borders, no orientations for right or wrong

  58. (G) Distinguished are: intention: fully intentionally, mostly planned; grossly negligence: certainly, no intention, but damages of people or things accepted; negligence: occurred damage not wanted or not known, care had not been considered.

  59.  (G) Jugendschutzgesetz (Child protection law) (actually: Gesetz zum Schutz der Jugend in der Öffentlichkeit = law of the protection of the youth in the public) = general rules, e.g. smoking, consumption of alcohol, visit of restaurants, etc.  Jugendarbeitsschutzgesetz (youth industrial safety act) = rules about the protection of young persons in the workplace (working hours and break times, holidays; child employment prohibition: less than 15 years)

  60. (G) Diäten (Emoluments) =  "compensation" (income, has to be paid tax on) for members of parliament, is to protect their independence

  61. 0.84 = 84 : 100 = 84/100 = (reduced) 42/50 = 21/25 (21 twentyfifths)

  62. Economy = the science of business; ecology = the science of the environment (more exactly: of the relations between the living beings and their environment) (mnemonic: does not work in English)

  63. All enterprises and almost all people behave according the economic principle to make as much profit as possible, or to save money: either one has a certain aim (e. g. to sell 1 million cars per year or spend a two weeks’ holiday half board in Majorca) and tries to reach it with the lowest cost possible or to get it as cheap as possible. Or one has a certain amount (of workers; engines; or money saved for a holiday) and tries to reach the maximum with it (as many goods as possible or as long a holiday as possible)

  64. poly- = a lot (almost all synthetic materials are named poly... because their molecules are long chains of many single molecules) By the way: mono- = single, one- ; stereo, dual or bi- = double or two; quadro- = four times

  65. semi-= half (e.g., semi-final)

  66. The IRA = Irish Republican Army (militant Irish underground organization that  wants to reunify Northern Ireland, which belongs partly to Great Britain, with the Republic of Ireland =; ETA = Euzkadi ta Atskatasuna (Basque for: " Basque provinces and freedom ") (the militant Basque underground organization which demands own government for Basques living in north Spain and south France); PLO = Palastinian Liberation Organization (wants own government of Palestina, or remove the government of Israel)

  67. Emigrants = people who leave a country for good (from ex- = out); immigrants = people who come to live in another country (cf also: emissions and intromissions, question 50)

  68. Parts of speech: e.g. nouns (e.g., table), verbs (e.g. sleeps), adjectives (e.g. warm), adverbs (e.g. yesterday), pronouns (e.g. he), articles (e.g. the), etc; parts of a sentence (constituents, tasks of the words in a sentence): subject (e.g. article + noun: the salesman ..., pronouns: He ..., names:Thomas ...); predicate (verb:... discusses ...); object (e.g. noun:... the customer; pronoun:... him, name:... Mr Schwarz); adverbials (e.g. adverbs: yesterday, expression of several parts of speech: with a pencil) (s. also question 53)

  69. It is about 2 different temperature scales (different temperature at 0 °; other degree range): 0 °Celsius = 32 °Fahrenheit; scale: 5 degrees Centigrade = 9 degrees Fahrenheit (i.e.: +5 °C = 32 + 9 = +41 °F;  -5 °C = 32 - 9 = +23 °F; +10 °C = 32 + 18 = +50 °F, etc ; formula: °F = °C times 9/5 - 32 or: °C = (°F - 32) times 5/9 (Fahrenheit is used, first of all, in the USA)

  70. An investment (verb: invest) is the purchase or the rent of things or rights to earn money with it (subject investments: e.g. a machine; finance investments: e.g. shares; personnel investments: e.g. courses for employees) 

  71. auto- = self (automobile = movable by itself; automatic = doing by itself)      

  72. 10 minus 30 = -20 (minus 20) (if the temperature is at +10 ° and the temperature falls by 30 °, then the temperature will be at -20 °!)

  73. 3/5 minus 4/5 = -1/5 (explanation see question 72)

  74. The numerator is the number above the fraction stroke; the denominator is the number under the fraction stroke.

  75. A discount = price deduction: mostly on prompt or cash payment (therefore, also: "cash discount"), for example 2% of the amount payable (i.e.: 20 $ of 1000 §)

  76. Deposit money = money through cashless transfers (money of a transfer is  credited to the recipient in the books/ today: in the computer)

  77. The fraction stroke has the meaning of divided (:), i.e.: 3/7 = 3 : 7. A pocket calculator supplies the result: 0.428571428... By the way: fractions with the denominator 7 result in periodic decimal fractions, in the above example: 0.428571 428571 428571 428571 428571...

  78. Coalition = alliance, union (form a coalition = form an alliance), e.g. of two political parties (SPD and Bündnis 90/ Die Grünen) (German Socialdemocratic Party and Alliance 90/ the Greens) if one party does not have the majority in the parliament

  79. Left parties = communist, socialist, social democratic ("red") ones; right parties = conservative ("black"), nationalistic ("brown") ones

  80. In carbon monoxide a carbon atom is connected only with one oxygen atom (mono = only, one, e.g. monopoly, mono instead of stereo; monogamy): CO (appears with processes of combustion, is lighter than air, poisonous with inhalation, combines - instead of oxygen - with the red blood cells); in carbon dioxide with two oxygen atoms (di-= both, two): CO2 (colourless, odourless, tasteless, appears with breathing and with processes of combustion, to a large extent responsible for the heating of the earth, "greenhouse effect")

  81. The Kelvin temperature scale (only "K", not "°K"!) begins with the absolute neutral point in which - even in the atomic area - no more movement is to be stated. This temperature corresponds to –273.16 °Celsius (= 0 Kelvin). Fortunately Kelvin degrees have the same length as Celsius degrees, so that 273.16° have to be added to a given Celsius temperature to get the corresponding Kelvin temperature. By a conversion of K into °C 273.16 ° have to be substracted accordingly.

  82. The fact that each of the 18 associations has to play against each other, results in 18 times 17 = 306 games in one season. If all teams play on the same day (= 18 : 2 = 9 matings) there will be 306 : 9 = 34 match days. With 20 teams there would be 20 times 19 = 380 games, divided by 10 matings = 38 match days. (The return games are included, because ,e.g., the combination K versus M as well as the one M versus K are contained in the 306, or 380 games.)

  83. Wheat ears hardly have any beards (the bristles which reach beyond the ears); rye ears have visible beards of a few centimeters in length; barley ears have very long beards (5-10 cm in length).

  84. In North America (Canada and the USA) English is spoken, in a part of Canada also French; Spanish in Central America (e.g. Mexico; Nicaragua); in the Caribbean Spanish or English; in South America Spanish (e.g. Argentina, Peru, Bolivia, Chile) and Portuguese (only in Brazil).  After the conquest of South America by the Spaniards and the Portuguese in the 15th and 16th century the Spaniards and the Portuguese divided the subcontinent among themselves, namely into a western (Spanish one) and an eastern (Portuguese) half. Brazil is almost as big as the many Spanish speaking countries.

  85. The UN (United Nations Organization) is a world-wide organization to which almost all nations belong. After 2 world wars the world peace should be protected. The NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) was created after the 2nd world war as a military bulwark against the Warsaw Pact of the communist countries of Europe. After the breakdown of the Soviet Union and the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact the NATO has become virtually "unemployed”. It is assigned military tasks by the UN to execute peace missions (e.g. Gulf War; Kosovo).

  86.  One can solve a rule of three with 3 sentences. 1st sentence (assertion sentence): It is maintained: 2 pillows cost 12 DM; it is asked, how many 5 pillows cost consequently; 2nd sentence (consequence sentence): consequently: 1 pillow costs 12 : 2 = 6 DM; 3rd sentence (concluding sentence): I come to the conclusion: 5 pillows cost 5 times 6 DM = 30 DM. Basic principle of every rule of three: the quantity which is not searched (here: number of pillows) is calculated down to 1 unit.
  87. The rule of three No. 86 is of the type "the more ..., the more ..." - task (proportional): an inversely proportional rule of three is "the more ..., the less ..." - task, e.g.: 1st sentence: 4 painters need 6 days for an order; the questions is, how many days 3 painters would need; 2nd sentence: 1 painter needs 6 times 4 = 24 days (he needs 4 times as much time because he must work - apart from his own working hours – those of the other 3 !); 3rd sentence: 3 painters need 24 : 3 = 8 days (24 days are distributed to 3 persons !). Also here the known quantity (number of painters) was calculated for 1. By the way: with doubled or multipart rules of three all known sizes are calculated down to 1 unit each.
  88. One can solve per cent tasks the same way as rules of three (the per cent formula: "per cent value = basic value times percentage divided by 100" is only another way of writing of the rule of three). Example task: how many DM are 16% of 2000 DM? 1st sentence: 100% = 2000 DM; 2nd sentence: 1% = 2000 : 100 = 20 DM; 3rd sentence: 16% = 20 · 16 = 320 DM. (The known size "%" was calculated for 1)   By the way: using the per cent formula results in: 2000 · 16 : 100 = 320 DM
  89. (G) The authorities  of the ordinary jurisdiction (civil court ability) are: Amtsgericht (district court); Landgericht (country court); Oberlandesgericht (higher regional court); Bundesgerichtshof (federal court of justice). The social ability, as well as the industrial tribunal ability consist of only 3 authorities: Sozial-, or Arbeitsgericht (social, or industrial tribunal); Landessozial, or Landesarbeitsgericht (country social, or country industrial tribunal) and Bundessozial-, or Bundesarbeitsgericht (federal-social, or federal industrial court). Court decisions can be admitted for the appeal with the next higher authority. The examination by the highest court (federal courts) is called Revision (revision). It is admitted only in cases of general interest.
  90. The most important office-bearers at court are: the judge (leads the trial; pronounces the sentence); the public prosecutor (only with cases which are pursued by the government) (represents the interests of the state = of the people; brings forward the accusation); the defender (represents the interests  of the defendant)
  91. A balance consists of 2 columns. It is made mostly in the end of the year after the stocktaking. The left column (assets or property) contains all property subjects (e.g., buildings, vehicles; cash), also unsettled customer's bills (demands). The right column (liabilities or capital) contains the finances with which the assets were financed (e.g., company capital, outside capital), also unsettled supplier's bills (obligations). If more property exists than money was invested, an annual profit has occured. It appears in the right column. It has also contributed to the financing of assets. If more money was used than assets exist, a loss has occured. It appears in the left column. The sums of each of the 2 columns must always be the same (balance sheet total).
  92. Profitability measures how worthwhile an investment has been, namely in per cent (e.g. capital profitability: profit divided by assigned capital · 100%; sales profitability: profit divided by sales proceeds · 100%). Productivity measures how productive employees or macines were (e.g. work productivity: achieved number of items per working hour)
  93. Least settled are Mongolia (with averagely 1.6 inhabitants per km ² = 1,000,000 !), Namibia (1.9 inhabitant per 1 km²) and Australia (2.4 inhabitants per 1 km²). Closest settled are the small country of Monaco (16 410 inhabitants per km²!), Singapore (4,691 inhabitants per 1 km²), Vatican City (1,055 inhabitants per 1 km ²) and Bangladesh (874 inhabitants per 1 km²).  To the comparison: Germany.: 229 inhabitants per 1 km²
  94. (G) A “Hausse” (French: height, pronounced: "oss") is a period of rising share quotations, a “Baisse” (French: depth, really: "bass") a period of falling share quotations.
  95. Provided that not the animals are meant, the bulls in the stock exchange jargon are the speculators, who bet on rising courses (boom) (optimists), the bears those who bet on falling courses (fall of prices) (pessimists). Mnemonic: the bulls attack stormily, the bears are rather sedately.
  96. A speed of 10 m/s = 36 km/h. The conversion factor is 3.6, namely times 3.6 if it is "upwards" (from m to km), correspondingly divided by 3.6 if it is "downwards" (from km to m). With a speed of 144 km/h à 144 : 3.6 (extended: 1440 : 36; reduced: 720 : 18 = 360 : 9) = 40 m/s  are covered (braking distance!). (Where does  the factor 3.6 come from? 1 km = 1000 m and  1 h = 3600 s. So 1 km/ 1 h = 1000 m/ 3600 s = (reduced by  1000) 1 m/ 3.6 s = 1 : 3.6 m/s.)
  97. To master the performance of running 100 m in 10 s (without start there are certainly quite a few runners who can do this), corresponds to a speed of 100 m/ 10 s = 10 m/s. This is a speed of 10 times 3.6 = 36 km/h! (S. question 96). These runners would be flashed in a 30- km-zone. By the way: the world record might lie with briefly more than 40 km/h (value for the calculation approx. 4x100m-relay world record divided by 4).
  98. Cohesion (cohesive force) is the force that holds together the particles (atoms, molecules) of the same material (e.g. iron); adhesion (adhesive power) is the force which holds together particles of different materials (e.g.  price tag and goods). By the way: the fact, that the attempt to remove a price tag results in rather the paper tearing apart and adhesive rests remaining on the goods, is intention. Maybe the high adhesion force between adhesive and goods is to  prevent removing and exchanging of price tags by customers.
  99. (G) A “Gesellenbrief” (journeyman's letter) is obtained after a successfully completed professional training (apprenticeship) in a craftman’s establishment (responsible chamber: “Handwerkskammer” = chamber of trade); a “Facharbeiterbrief” (certificate of proficiency) after the conclusion of a training (apprenticeship) in an industrial company (responsible chamber: “Industrie- und Handelskammer”, IHK = Chamber of Industry and Commerce).
  100. 100 (cent-)
  101. The American War of Independence (independent of England) was finished with the Declaration of Independence on the 4th of July, 1776 (the 4th of July is the American national holiday!). The French Revolution began with the Raid on the Bastille on the 14th of July, 1789 (the 14th of July is the French national holiday!).
  102. The word "dollar" came to America with German settlers. It comes from "taler" which has its name from the place Joachimsthal where silver (for the production of coins) was exploited (Joachimsthaler silver coin).
  103. The speed of light is about unbelievable 300 000 kms/ sec (187,500 miles/ sec) = 1 080 000 000 km/h  (675,000,000 miles/ hr) (300 000 · 3600, because 1 hour = 60 · 60 = 3600 seconds), so more than 1 billion kilometers per hour.
  104. Jocular question! A light-year is no duration, but a distance; namely the distance that light covers in 1 year. As it is known that light covers 300 000 kms (187,500 miles) (almost the distance earth - moon!), in 1 second, a light-year can be calculated as follows: 300 000 kms · 3600 sec · 24 hrs · 365,25 days = 9 467 280 000 000 kms (5,917,050,000,000 miles) By the way: There are celestial bodies that are millions or even billions of lightyears away from us!
  105. Hekt(o)– means  100 (e. g.: 1 hectolitre = 100 l; 1 hectare = 100 ares = 100 · 100 m ²).
  106. The flora is the kingdom of plants (cf.: flower!), fauna is the animal kingdom. We humans are part of the fauna.
  107. ppm = parts per million: particles of the concerning material (mostly from pollutants) per 1 million particles air or water (1 ppm = 1 thousandth part of 1 per mill, so 1 millionth)
  108. Cent (i-) the hundredth part, stemming from centesimo = 1/100. 1 centimeter is a hundredth meter (1 cm = 1/100 m). 1 cent is the hundredth part of a dollar or  a Euro.
  109. The sun is a star with a lifespan of some billion years.
  110. Big unities (e.g. of byte) are: Kilo- (1,000), Mega-(1,000,000), Giga-(1,000,000,000). Small unities (e.g. of meter or gramme) are: Milli- (1/1 000), Mikro- (1/1 000 000), Nano- (1/1 000 000 000), Pico- (1/1 000 000 000 000)
  111. With an evolution everything changes completely slowly (e.g. the evolution of human beings); with a revolution something changes very quickly (e. g. in a putsch).
    (English version of answers still under translation, e. g. correcting the deficient online translation)    27.12.01

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